Original Articles

Exploring the Factor Structure of the Proactive Coping Inventory: A Southern African Study

Published in: Journal of Psychology in Africa
Volume 23, issue 3, 2013 , pages: 519–522
DOI: 10.1080/14330237.2013.10820662
Author(s): Michelle RenardNelson Mandela Metropolitan University,, Robin John SnelgarNelson Mandela Metropolitan University,


This study explored the factor structure of the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI) to determine whether its six-factor structure holds within the Southern African context. Data on proactive coping were collected from students attending three universities, one each in Botswana (n=88, females=45.5%, mean age=21.31 years, SD=2.04), Namibia (n=38, females=47.4%, mean age=24.21 years, SD=3.47) and South Africa (n=496, females=56.9%; mean age=22.27 years, SD=2.60). Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure of the PCI. Findings suggest that the PCI is comprised of two factors: Future-Oriented Coping (comprised of Proactive Coping, Reflective Coping, Strategic Planning and Preventive Coping) and Support Seeking (comprised of Instrumental Support Seeking and Emotional Support Seeking). This is in line with theory that suggests that individuals cope by means of persisting towards goal attainment.

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