Original Articles

Normative Indicators for Xhosa Speaking Unskilled Workers on the Wechsler Memory Scale Associate Learning and Visual Reproduction Subtests

Published in: Journal of Psychology in Africa
Volume 22, issue 3, 2012 , pages: 323–332
DOI: 10.1080/14330237.2012.10820537
Author(s): Lauren FikeRhodes University, South Africa, Jan KnoetzeRhodes University, South Africa, Ann Shuttleworth-EdwardsRhodes University, South Africa, Sarah RadloffRhodes University, South Africa


This study set out to provide preliminary cross-cultural normative data for educationally disadvantaged Black South African Xhosa individuals (N=33; age range = 18 to 40 years; highest educational level = Grade 11 or Grade 12), on the Associate Learning and Visual Reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) administered in English. The outcome was statistically analysed for within sample age and gender effects; and the derived normative indications were descriptively compared with existing age-equivalent norms. Results indicate that performance on these tasks declined with the advancement of age, and that the derived Xhosa scores were considerably lower than those of available norms especially for the Visual Reproduction subtest. We concluded that the WMS Associate Learning and Visual Reproduction tests have applicability for clinical use on this population with locally acquired norms.

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