The Tower of London-DX 2nd Edition test: Preliminary norms for educationally disadvantaged Xhosa-speaking individuals

Published in: Journal of Psychology in Africa
Volume 29, issue 1, 2019 , pages: 60–66
DOI: 10.1080/14330237.2019.1568074
Author(s): Rumaine NaidooDepartment of Psychology, South Africa, Ann B. Shuttleworth-EdwardsDepartment of Psychology, South Africa, Ryan BothaDepartment of Psychology, South Africa, Ida PienaarDepartment of Psychology, South Africa


This study aimed to construct preliminary normative indications for educationally disadvantaged, Xhosa-speaking South African individuals on the Tower of London-Drexel University 2nd Edition test (TOL-DX 2nd Edition). The TOL-DX 2nd Edition is a commonly employed neurocognitive measure of executive function across seven indicators. The study sample included 39 Xhosa-speaking participants proficient in English, aged 19 to 40 years, with a Grade 11 or Grade 12 education attained at a poorly resourced school. Descriptive statistics in the form of means and standard deviations were used to describe the TOL-DX 2nd Edition scaled score normative indicators for the present sample. These preliminary norms were broadly equivalent to the United States standardisation for all seven test indexes. Larger studies with wider age, educational, and geographical distributions are suggested to generate norms that may be usable for clinical case interpretations among educationally disadvantaged South African individuals.

Get new issue alerts for Journal of Psychology in Africa