Research Papers

Characteristics and management options of crusting soils in a smallholder farming area of the Zambezi metamorphic belt in northern Zimbabwe

Published in: South African Journal of Plant and Soil
Volume 32, issue 3, 2015 , pages: 157–164
DOI: 10.1080/02571862.2015.1018355
Author(s): Alen ManyevereUniversity of Limpopo, South Africa, Courage BangiraChinhoyi University of Technology, Zimbabwe, Jephita GotosaBindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe, Lawrence MunjonjiUniversity of Limpopo, South Africa, Emmanuel ChikwariChemistry and Soil Research, Zimbabwe


Crusting and surface-sealing soils present productivity challenges to smallholder farmers despite their high inherent fertility. Crop production on crusting soils is costly due to unfavourable conditions such as surface capping and compaction, which hinder crop emergence. A study was conducted at Bruton farm in Zimbabwe to characterise crusting soils and assess options for their management. Soil crusting was characterised using crust thickness, crusting susceptibility index, bulk density, infiltration rates, soil aggregate stability and clay mineralogy. Structured and semi-structured interviews were also conducted to capture methods used by farmers to control the crusting. The relationship between crust thickness and soil physical and chemical properties and management practices were assessed using stepwise regression analysis. Soil crusting was largely related to soil aggregation, infiltration, fine sand fraction, cotton monocropping and crop residue incorporation. Crop residue incorporation and crop rotation could be adopted to mitigate soil crusting at the scheme.

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