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Sleep duration and chronotype in adults in Côte d'Ivoire: influence of gender, religion and age

Published in: Journal of Psychology in Africa
Volume 25, issue 4, 2015 , pages: 350–355
DOI: 10.1080/14330237.2015.1078093
Author(s): Claudia BorchersMax Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany, Dabila OuattaraWild Chimpanzee Foundation, Switzerland, Christian VollmerInstitute of Psychology, Germany, Christoph RandlerInstitute of Science, Geography and Technology, Germany


This study investigated the sleep-wake rhythm and chronotype of people living in Côte d'Ivoire. We assessed sleep-wake behaviour in 556 adults (336 men, 220 women) between 25 and 54 years (mean: 38.63) by means of structured interviews. Data were analysed by linear models with sleep wake variables as dependent variables and age, gender, religion and region (urban/rural) as fixed factors controlling for number of working hours and children. Results suggest sleep length not to differ between weekdays and weekends but sleep timing (chronotype) was later on weekends with a midpoint of sleep at 1:37am during weekdays compared to 1:58am on weekends. The more children, the earlier was the midpoint of sleep and the shorter was sleep length. Midpoint of sleep was earlier in older people. Women slept longer during weekdays and were earlier chronotypes. Sleep duration was longer in the rural areas and midpoint of sleep was later in the urban areas on weekdays and on the weekend. Muslims showed the shortest sleep duration and were earliest chronotypes. Sleep-wake cycles in the African setting sample were shorter for women, Moslems, and older people.

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