Southern Forests

a Journal of Forest Science

ISSN: 2070-2620 (Print)
            2070-2639 (Online)
Publication frequency: 4 issues per year

Impact Factor: 0.848 (2016)
5-year Impact Factor: 0.809

Accredited with the DHET (SAPSE)

Official publication of the Southern African Institute of ForestryCo-published with Taylor & FrancisClick here for Open Access options on this journal

Aims & Scope

Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science is one of the leading forestry journals in the Southern Hemisphere. The journal publishes scientific articles in forest science and management of fast-growing, planted or natural forests in the Southern Hemisphere and the tropics. Papers are also encouraged on related disciplines such as environmental aspects of forestry, social forestry, agroforestry, forest engineering and management as well as the goods and services that are derived from forests as a whole. Articles published by the journal are of value to foresters, resource managers and society at large. The journal particularly encourages contributions from South America, Africa and tropical/subtropical Australasia and Asia. Publication of the journal is supported by the Southern African Institute of Forestry.



Dr Andrew R Morris, Research Manager, Institute for Commercial Forestry Research, South Africa

Associate Editors

Dr D Everard, Divisional Environmental Manager, Sappi Forests, South Africa
Dr FS Malan, Timber Research Manager, Komatiland Forests, South Africa

Editorial Office

Southern Forests: a Journal of  Forest Science
c/o Southern African Institute of Forestry, Postnet Suite 329, Private Bag X4, Menlo Park, 0102, South Africa
Telephone: +27 (0)12 348 1745
Fax: +27 (0)12 348 1745

Manuscript Submission

All manuscripts presented in accordance with instructions to authors (printed in the back of each issue) should be submitted to the Editor at the Editorial Office. Instructions are also accessible under ‘Forestry Journal' on

Editorial Advisory Panel

Prof. F Ahmed, University of Johannesburg: Spatial Modelling, South Africa
Dr C Beadle, CSIRO: CRC, Sustainable Production Forestry, Australia
Dr J-P Bouillet, CIRAD: Silviculture/Nutrient Cycles, France
Dr MP Brink, Independent: Forest Engineering, South Africa
Prof. P Chirwa, University of Pretoria: Agroforestry, Socioecological Effects, South Africa
Dr C Clarke, Forestry Company: Fibre Processing, South Africa
Prof. T Coutinho, University of Pretoria: FABI, Biotechnology, Pretoria
Dr C de Ronde, Independent: Fire Management, South Africa
Dr G Downes, Forest Quality Pty. Ltd., Australia
Prof. WS Dvorak, North Carolina State University, CAMCORE: Genetics, USA
Prof. J-P Evans, Imperial College: Forest Science, United Kingdom
Prof. CJ Geldenhuys, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch: Natural Forest Ecology and Management, South Africa
Dr I Grundy, University of Zimbabwe: Sustainable Ecosystems, Zimbabwe
Dr R Ismail, University of KwaZulu-Natal: Remote Sensing Applications, South Africa
Dr NB Jones, Forestry Company: Plant Propagation, Biotechnology, South Africa
Dr A Kanzler, Forestry Company: Research, South Africa
Dr HW Kassier, Independent: Management Planning, South Africa
Prof. LD Kellogg, Oregon State University: Forest Engineering, USA
Prof. M Lawes, Charles Darwin University: Wildlife and Landscapes, Australia
Dr D Lee, University of the Sunshine Coast: Tree Improvement, Australia
Dr KM Little, ICFR: Research, Silviculture, South Africa
Dr J Roux, Forestry Company, South Africa
Dr M Ryan, Colorado State University: Forest Ecophysiology, USA
Prof. M Scholes, University of the Witwatersrand: Environmental Sciences, South Africa
Prof. T Seifert, University of Stellenbosch: Forest Growth, Yield and Management, South Africa
Prof. DB South, Auburn University: Forest and Wildlife, USA
Dr M Tome, Technical University of Lisbon, Centro de Estudos Floretais, Portugal
Dr S Verryn, Independent: Tree Improvement, South Africa
Prof. R Wimmer, University of Göttingen: Forest Sciences and Ecology, Germany
Prof. MJ Wingfield, University of Pretoria, FABI: Agricultural Biotechnology, South Africa


Publishing Manager

Contact regarding all aspects relating to the publishing of the journal, including production and copyright issues:

Mike Schramm
NISC (Pty) Ltd
4 Speke Street
PO Box 377
Grahamstown 6140
South Africa

Tel: +27 (0)46 622 9698
Fax: +27 (0)46 622 9550

Published in association with the Southern African Institute of Forestry (SAIF):

Membership to the SAIF is open to all interested persons. Membership rates and information on the SAIF can be obtained from the Administrator, Ms Corine Viljoen — Tel: +27 (0)12 348 1745, e-mail:

Latest Issue

Volume 80, Issue 2, 2018

Research Article

Multiple disturbance patterns and population structure of a tropical tree species, Afzelia africana (Leguminosae–Caesalpinioideae), in two contrasting bioclimatic zones of the Republic of Benin
Author(s): Ogoudje I AmahoweLaboratoire d’Ecologie, de Botanique et de Biologie végétale, Faculté d’Agronomie, République du Bénin, Samadori SH BiaouLaboratoire d’Ecologie, de Botanique et de Biologie végétale, Faculté d’Agronomie, République du Bénin, Armand K NattaLaboratoire d’Ecologie, de Botanique et de Biologie végétale, Faculté d’Agronomie, République du Bénin, Rodrigue O BalaguemanLaboratoire d’Ecologie, de Botanique et de Biologie végétale, Faculté d’Agronomie, République du Bénin
Pages: 95–103
The impact of log surface damage caused by harvester Eucalyptus debarking on pulp value recovery
Author(s): Jaco-Pierre van der MerweDepartment of Forest and Wood Science, South Africa, Reino PulkkiDepartment of Forest and Wood Science, South Africa, Pierre AckermanDepartment of Forest and Wood Science, South Africa, Dirk LänginMondi Ltd, South Africa
Pages: 105–113
Alternative eucalypts for commercial pulpwood production at moderately dry sites in the warm temperate zone of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Author(s): Robin AW GardnerInstitute for Commercial Forestry Research, South Africa, Keith M LittleSchool of Natural Resource Management, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa, Arnulf KanzlerSappi Forest Research, South Africa, Thimagren N NaidooSappi Forest Research, South Africa
Pages: 115–129
Preliminary trials of the BioBaler working in Brazilian eucalypt plantations
Author(s): Saulo PS GuerraCollege of Agricultural Sciences, Brazil, Guilherme OguriCollege of Agricultural Sciences, Brazil, Marcelo S DenadaiCollege of Agricultural Sciences, Brazil, Maura ST EsperanciniCollege of Agricultural Sciences, Brazil, Raffaele SpinelliConsiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Italy
Pages: 131–135
Impact of number of stems per stool on mechanical harvesting of a Eucalyptus globulus coppiced plantation in south-west Western Australia
Author(s): Martin StrandgardAustralian Forest Operations Research Alliance (AFORA), Australia, Rick MitchellAustralian Forest Operations Research Alliance (AFORA), Australia
Pages: 137–142
Allometric models to estimate foliage biomass of Tamarindus indica in Burkina Faso
Author(s): Loyapin BondéLaboratory of Plant Biology and Ecology, Burkina Faso, Moussa GanaméLaboratory of Plant Biology and Ecology, Burkina Faso, Oumarou OuédraogoLaboratory of Plant Biology and Ecology, Burkina Faso, Blandine MI NacoulmaLaboratory of Plant Biology and Ecology, Burkina Faso, Adjima ThiombianoLaboratory of Plant Biology and Ecology, Burkina Faso, Joseph I BoussimLaboratory of Plant Biology and Ecology, Burkina Faso
Pages: 143–150
Genetic variability of growth and wood chemical properties in a clonal population of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis in the Congo
Author(s): Garel MakouanziCentre de Recherche sur la Durabilité et la Productivité des Plantations Industrielles (CRDPI), Republic of the Congo, Gilles ChaixCIRAD, France, Sophie NourissierCIRAD, France, Philippe VigneronCentre de Recherche sur la Durabilité et la Productivité des Plantations Industrielles (CRDPI), Republic of the Congo
Pages: 151–158
Sawn-timber and kraft pulp properties of Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus patula × Pinus tecunumanii hybrids and their parental species
Author(s): André NelShaw Research Centre, Sappi Forests Research, South Africa, Francois S MalanRetired, South Africa, Ron BraunsteinSappi Technology Centre, South Africa, C Brand WesselsDepartment of Forest and Wood Science, South Africa, Arnulf KanzlerShaw Research Centre, Sappi Forests Research, South Africa
Pages: 159–168
A productivity model for first thinning of Pinus patula using a tractor and double-drum winch in South Africa
Author(s): Thabo MoloiForest Postgraduate Programme, South Africa, Michal BrinkForest Postgraduate Programme, South Africa, Paxie W ChirwaForest Postgraduate Programme, South Africa, Elisha NgulubeDepartment of Forestry, Malawi
Pages: 169–173
Dissimilar stem and leaf hydraulic traits suggest varying drought tolerance among co-occurring Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla clones
Author(s): Casparus J CrousDepartment of Plant and Soil Sciences, South Africa, Izette GreylingDepartment of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, South Africa, Michael J WingfieldDepartment of Plant and Soil Sciences, South Africa
Pages: 175–184
Monitoring Victoria’s public forests: implementation of the Victorian Forest Monitoring Program
Author(s): Andrew HaywoodEuropean Forest Institute, Spain, Kristen ThrumVictorian Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Australia, Andrew MellorSchool of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Australia, Christine StoneNew South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Australia
Pages: 185–194


Instructions for Authors

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Author FAQ


Instructions for Authors 

Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science accepts Research Papers and Review Papers as well as shorter Research Notes. Please study the format and style of a recent issue. Contributions should be presented in plain English that is suitable for peer review without the need for copy editing. Contributions with a main body text of 3 000 to 4 000 words will be given preference.

Editorial policy: Contributions must conform to the principles outlined in Ethical Considerations in Research Publication available for download below. 

Submissions: Submission of a manuscript implies that the work has not been published previously, is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere and its publication has been approved by all co-authors. Upon acceptance for publication by Southern Forests, the authors will assign in writing exclusive copyright to the publisher NISC (Pty) Ltd. Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the Instructions to Authors information as outlined below and submitted in MSWord via e-mail to the Editor-in-Chief at the following address:
c/o Southern African Institute of Forestry 
Postnet Suite 329, Private Bag X4 
Menlo Park 0102 
South Africa 

Manuscript format: Manuscripts must be prepared using Microsoft Word (font Arial or Times New Roman, 12 pt), double spaced, preferably with lines numbered. Tables, figures and images should be on separate pages. The manuscript should be submitted electronically to the Editor-in-Chief.

Headings: Hierarchical sequence to be used: sentence-case bold, sentencecase italics and bold, then sentence-case italics non-bold. Subdivisions must be designated (1), (2), etc. and further subdivisions (i), (ii), etc.

Abbreviations: Use abbreviations and acronyms for long technical names that occur frequently in the text and where common usage occurs (e.g. DNA). When first used, state the name in full followed by abbreviation or acronym in parentheses.

Units of measure: SI units must be used. For wood volume yield use the form m 3  ha -1 -1, wood density use g m -3 , stand density use trees  ha -1 or stems ha -1 . Slope should be recorded in degrees, not per cent. Parts per million should be expressed as mg kg -1 , ug l -1 . Use units that are appropriate to the nature of the work being reported, e.g. ha rather than the SI base unit m -2 . Use cm for DBH values, log and pole diameters. List of ‘Standard Symbols’ is available on the SAIF website (see Forestry Journal).

Numbers: Use figures where a unit of measurement is given, e.g. 2 m, but use the word for numbers under 10 or at beginning of a sentence. Numbers larger than 999 should be divided into groups of three figures, e.g. 2 570; 42 500 000. Separate items in a string of figures with semi-colons. Use decimal fractions. Where common fractions are unavoidable, type thus: ¾. Use full-stop for a decimal point, e.g. 1 245.105.

Formulae: Symbols in mathematical formulae should be set in italics, except operators (sin, log, ln, exp) and constants, which will be in Roman type, and matrices and vectors, which will be set in bold type. Use the simplest formulae that can be made by ordinary mathematical calculations. Type formulae as far as possible in one line, e.g. (a + b)/(r + y). Fractional exponents must be typed thus: x ½ or x 0.5. Superior over inferior notation must be typed thus: x 2a

Tables and figures: Tables and figures should be on separate pages, and numbered in Arabic numerals; figures grouped together must be numbered using lower-case chronological letters. These items should be readily understood, without reference to the text. Two-dimensional graphics and histograms are preferred and shading patterns should be kept simple. Authors must ensure that their figures conform to the style of the journal. Pay particular attention to line thickness, font and figure proportions, taking into account the journals printed page size. Costs of redrawing figures may be charged. Please refer to Figure Guidelines for Authors: format, technical considerations and style available for download below. For digital photographs or scanned images the resolution should be at least 300 dpi for colour or greyscale artwork and a minimum of 600 dpi for black line drawings. These can be saved (in order of preference) as PSD, TIFF, EPS, PDF or JPEG files. Graphs, charts or maps should be exported as AI, WMF, EMF, EPS, PDF or SVG files. MS Powerpoint and Excel files are acceptable. If submitting figures in a MS Word document use ‘Insert Picture from File’ (do not copy and paste, or embed the artwork). More detailed technical information is given in Figure Guidelines for Authors. Illustrations can be reproduced in colour, but only when essential, and subject to approval by the Editor-in-Chief. Non-essential use of colour will be charged at ZAR900 (excl. VAT) per page for African contributors and USD150 per page for contributors from elsewhere.

References: References should be cited in the text in the following forms: Smith (2010); Simelane (2011a, 2011b); Swart and Dlamini (2009); Simelane (1998, 2003); (Simelane 2011, Smith 2010). With more than two authors, use the first author’s name followed by et al. throughout (Rypstra et al. 1979). List references alphabetically and then chronologically at the end of the manuscript. Use full journal titles. Examples:

Brack C. 1996. Tree shape. Available at: [accessed on 9 October 2006].

Peace TR. 1962. Pathology of trees and shrubs with special reference to Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rolando CA, Hitchins M, Olivier S. 2006. Methods to improve late season planting of Pinus patula. ICFR Bulletin Series No. 08/2006. Pietermaritzburg: Institute for Commercial Forestry Research.

Rypstra T, Vermaas HF, Sanderson R. 1979. Dimensional stabilisation of wood: factors influencing it and the principles of treatment. South African Forestry Journal 108: 22–28.

Uggla C, Sundberg B. 2002. Sampling of cambial region tissues for high resolution analysis. In: Chaffey NJ (ed.), Wood formation in trees. London: Taylor and Francis. pp 215–228.

References should only include works cited in the text. In the case of publications in any other language than the one you are using the original title is to be retained, except where translated versions are cited. A paper may only be cited ‘in press’ if it has been accepted by a journal and is included in the References. A paper not yet accepted should be cited in the text as ‘unpubl. data’ with author’s initials and omitted from the References. Personal communications should be used sparingly and cited in the text thus, giving the correspondent’s affiliation: (WJ Smith pers. comm., [institution], [year]).

Manuscript structure: Manuscripts should be prepared using the following sections.
Title: Be brief but descriptive. Indicate location of study, e.g. Mpumalanga, South Africa. Do not give authorities for scientific names, though family and/or order in parenthesis are often desirable. Common names are acceptable when widely known and unequivocal. Follow title with  name(s) of author(s) and affiliation address(es). Follow with corresponding author e-mail address.

Abstract: Must not exceed 300 words. Present clearly the objective of the study, methods used, results and conclusion. At least three keywords not included in the title must be provided.

Introduction: Briefly provide the context for the study citing previous reported work. Show the link between the study and forest management as well as science. The introduction should end with clearly stated aims for the study.

Materials and methods: Provide sufficient information and detail so that the reader can make an independent assessment of procedures and analyses carried out. It is important to describe experimental sites including location, climate, soils and nature of the forest studied. Information on sample size, sampling methods, experimental design, precision of measurements and sampling units must be provided. Where possible cite references for more detailed description of materials and methods used. Statistical analytic methods and assumptions must be clearly stated.

Results: Do not present all observations but results must be given as necessary to support the conclusions. Presentation of results should be guided by statistical significance with these shown in tables and figures. It is preferred that results and discussion are presented as separate sections.

Discussion: Relate your findings to the aims of the study and other relevant reported work. Indicate how the work suggests future research needs and implications for forest management. Avoid reiteration of results and do not present additional observations from the study not reported in the results section.

Conclusions: Concisely state firm conclusions related to the aims of the study. Indicate possible future research aims and application to forest management.

Acknowledgements: It is important to acknowledge those who have supported the research, such as your institution, employer or funding agency, and those who rendered specific assistance.

Electronic reprints: Authors will be notified by e-mail when their article is available for download from the Taylor & Francis website.

Open access: Southern Forests is a hybrid journal which allows authors the option of publishing their article Open Access for a set fee. Further details are given on the Open Access at NISC page. 


Instructions for Authors

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Figure Guidelines for Authors

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Figure FAQs

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